Anatomy of the vertebrate skull

Ribs and Sternum The sternum, or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior side of the thoracic region of the skeleton.

Having the ability to kill bacteria. A diaphragm may have been present.

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A physician and world-renowed AIDS researcher. A psychologist interested in memes and the theory of memetics, evolutionary theory, consciousness, the effects of meditation, and why people believe in the paranormal.

Vertebral column starts to look mammalian: Compare with haploid and polyploid. The condition of having only one set of genes or chromosomes.

Jurassic theropods like Compsognathus are particularly similar to birds. The saurischian dinosaurs include two suborders: Most commonly, an organism, a physical part of an organism, or an imprint of an organism that has been preserved from ancient times in rock, amber, or by some other means.

The vast difference in height and limb length between birth and adulthood are mainly the result of endochondral ossification in the long bones. Primelephas latest Miocene -- Short lower jaw makes it look like an elephant now.

Because most carbon will have decayed after 50, years, the carbon isotope ratio is mainly useful for dating fossils and artifacts younger than this. Nostrils had moved back a bit from the tip of the snout. Number of dermal bones in the alligator skull: The abdomen is composed of eleven segments, some of which may be fused and houses the digestiverespiratoryexcretory and reproductive systems.

Diversified into all available grazer niches, giving rise to at least 19 successful three-toed grazers. They have an inflexible trunk encased in a horny carapace above and a plastron below.

Partly or wholly determined by genes; capable of being passed from an individual to its offspring. The historically influential but factually erroneous theory that organisms contain a blend of their parents' hereditary factors and pass that blend on to their offspring.

Cladismevolutionary classificationand phenetic classification are three methods of classification. Compare with ancestral homology.

The larvae are sedentary. Nearly complete skeletons of these animals have been found curled up - a possible reaction to conserve heat, indicating possible endothermy.


Homeoboxes code for a protein "homeodomain," a protein domain that binds to DNA, and can regulate the expression of other genes. Along with lycophytes and ferns, horsetails were among the first terrestrial plants to appear. Pony size, fully "horsey" body -- rigid spine, long neck, long legs, fused leg bones with no rotation, long nose, flexible muzzle, deep jaw.

The stapes now touched the inner side of the quadrate. Stem cells and osteoblast cells in the periosteum are involved in the growth and repair of the outside of the bone due to stress and injury. Cell size varies, but most cells are microscopic. Exoskeletons are derived from the epidermis and is composed of chitin in arthropods insects, spiders, ticks, shrimps, crabs, lobsters.

STRUCTURE OF THE VERTEBRATE SKULL Objectives: 1)For the three parts of the skull, be familiar with the following: what germ layer it originated from-location on the skull-major component bones-type of bone-function.

2) Be familiar with Williston’s Law. The Skeletal System – Extensive anatomy images and detailed descriptions allow you to learn all about the bones of the human skeleton, as well as ligaments. The Vertebrate Skull consists of: 1 - neurocranium (also called endocranium or primary braincase) 2 - dermatocranium (membrane bones) 3 - splanchnocranium (or visceral skeleton).


Vertebral column

The word origin of vertebrate derives from the Latin word vertebratus (), meaning joint of the spine. The Proto-Indo-European language origins are still unclear. Vertebrate is derived from the word vertebra, which refers to any of the bones or segments of the spinal column.

Anatomy and morphology.

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Skeletal System

In Hyman’s Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, Univ. Biology 3B Laboratory Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrate Skeletal Systems OBJECTIVES • To identify certain bones that comprise the skull of various vertebrates general evolutionary trend in the vertebrate skull is the reduction of the top and sides of the.

Anatomy of the vertebrate skull
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