An analysis of the third wave of democratization in the arab world an essay by dr mustafa k el sayyi

At its peak, the first wave saw 29 democracies in the world. Switzerlandwhich is typically included as part of the first wave, did not grant women the right to vote until In Latin America only Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela were democratic by and only Cuba and Haiti remained authoritarian bywhen the wave had swept across twenty countries.

Despite the apparently unsolvable situation, the UNunder the administration of Ban Ki-Moontried to work as a mediator between the governments and the protesters. Over time, online criticisms of regimes became more public and common, setting the stage for the Arab Spring.

First wave[ edit ] The First wave of democracy began in the early 19th century when suffrage was granted to the majority of white males in the United States " Jacksonian democracy ".

The citizens that could afford internet access, the wealthy and powerful mostly, played a huge role in the EgyptTunisiaand Bahrain uprisings. There has also been limited democratic reform in some countries, such as Burma and Morocco.

Some other countries have had democratic transitions however, such as Tunisia and the Gambia. One of the most alarming cases was that of Egypt, where the government, controlled by the military, did not facilitate the democratic transition in any way.

The similarity between the two phenomena inspired hope for a fourth wave of democratization. Political scientists and theorists believe that the third wave has crested and will soon begin to ebb, just as its predecessors did in the first and second waves.

But the "flat line" would not last for long, as the third wave was about to surge in a way no one had ever seen. Digital media also allowed women and other minorities to enter these political discussions, and, ultimately, the ensuing protests and revolutions as well.

The Second wave ebbed as well at this point, and the total number dropped to 30 democracies between and the mids.

This continued untilwhen Benito Mussolini rose to power in Italy. He attributed to the country the role of mentor and example for the newborn democracies.

Reasons for this fragility include economic instability, continued elite dominance of politics, ongoing military interference in civilian affairs, and others. How significant or lasting that erosion is remains a subject of debate.

Wave of democracy

Moreover, according to Larry Diamondthe engagement of the United States of America in the democratic transition of the Arab world was fundamental. The expansion of democracy in some regions was stunning. The ebb of the first wave lasted from untilduring which the number of democracies in the world dropped to a mere.

The term "Third Wave of Democracy" was first coined by Samuel P. Huntington, a political scientist at Harvard University in his article published in the Journal of Democracy and further expounded in his book The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century.

In most Arab countries, the democratic tidal wave of the s and the beginning of the XXI century took the shape of processes of political liberalization, directed by ruling elites, unilateral in character, different in degree, and varying from country to.

Diamond 3 in the world decreased significantly but left more democracies in place than had existed prior to the start of the previous democratic wave.

Published: Mon, 5 Dec To understand democratization and its effect on the third world countries let us first understand the meaning of democracy.

Democracy originates from two Greek words; demos which mean people and kratos which mean rule. During the Arab Spring, four of the world’s most recalcitrant dictators—Zine el Abadine Ben Ali of Tunisia, Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen, and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt—fell aft er decades in power.

At the beginning of the new millennium, the third wave of democratization had not yet touched the shores of any Arab country. In the s, analysts believed that economic liberalization would eventually lead to democratization in the region.

An analysis of the third wave of democratization in the arab world an essay by dr mustafa k el sayyi
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